Chronic Dis Transl Med. 2022 Jul 4;8(4):264-270. doi: 10.1002/cdt3.35. eCollection 2022 Dec.
Bone disease is the most common complication in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and it may lead to skeletal-related events (SREs) such as bone pain, pathological fractures, and spinal cord compression, which impair a patients’ quality of life and survival. The pathogenesis of myeloma bone disease (MBD) involves disruption of bone reconstitution balance including excessive activation of osteoclasts, inhibition of osteoblasts, and participation of osteocytes and bone marrow stromal cells. Various factors, such as the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG), dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), sclerostin, and activin-A, are involved in the development of MBD. Bisphosphonates and the anti-RANKL antibody denosumab are currently the main treatment options for MBD, delaying the onset of SREs. Denosumab is preferred in patients with MM and renal dysfunction. Although effective drugs have been approved, antimyeloma therapy is the most important method for controlling bone disease.