J Nanobiotechnology. 2024 May 23;22(1):279. doi: 10.1186/s12951-024-02512-6.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BCMA-directed autologous chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells have shown excellent clinical efficacy in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), however, the current preparation process for autologous CAR-T cells is complicated and costly. Moreover, the upregulation of CD47 expression has been observed in multiple myeloma, and anti-CD47 antibodies have shown remarkable results in clinical trials. Therefore, we focus on the development of BCMA/CD47-directed universal CAR-T (UCAR-T) cells to improve these limitations.

METHODS: In this study, we employed phage display technology to screen nanobodies against BCMA and CD47 protein, and determined the characterization of nanobodies. Furthermore, we simultaneously disrupted the endogenous TRAC and B2M genes of T cells using CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate TCR and HLA double knock-out T cells, and developed BCMA/CD47-directed UCAR-T cells and detected the antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

RESULTS: We obtained fourteen and one specific nanobodies against BCMA and CD47 protein from the immunized VHH library, respectively. BCMA/CD47-directed UCAR-T cells exhibited superior CAR expression (89.13-98.03%), and effectively killing primary human MM cells and MM cell lines. BCMA/CD47-directed UCAR-T cells demonstrated excellent antitumor activity against MM and prolonged the survival of tumor-engrafted NCG mice in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated that BCMA/CD47-directed UCAR-T cells exhibited potent antitumor activity against MM in vitro and in vivo, which provides a potential strategy for the development of a novel “off-the-shelf” cellular immunotherapies for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

PMID:38783333 | DOI:10.1186/s12951-024-02512-6