J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2023 Mar;33(3):281-285. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2023.03.281.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of chromosomal translocations in multiple myeloma (MM) detected by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and its clinical characteristics.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from February to August 2022.

METHODOLOGY: A total of 40 cases of MM were included. All cases were diagnosed using international myeloma working group (IMWG) criteria. Clinical presentations like bone pain, backache, fatigue, pallor, and weight loss were noted. The workup for myeloma-defining events was done. FISH analysis was done for t (4;14), t (11,14), t (14;16), t (14;20), and del 17p. Data were analysed using the chi-square test. A p-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Out of 40 patients, 8 (20%) were females and 32 (80%) were males. The highest frequency of cases were noted among males in the age group >60 years and females in the age group 40-60 years. FISH for t (4;14) was positive in 22 (55%) patients, for t (11;14) was positive in 4 (10%) patients, for t (14;16) was positive in 3 (7.5%) patients, and for t (14;20) was positive in 3 (7.5%) patients, while for del17p was positive in 8 (20%) patients. Cases with t (4;14), t (11;14), and t (14;20) had bone pain, fatigue, and backache as the most common presentations. Among the various parameters studied, lytic lesions, beta-2 microglobulin, spike protein, deranged haemoglobin, TLC, ESR, albumin, and creatinine were significant risk factors in patients who were tested positive for various mutations.

CONCLUSION: The FISH technique has brought an immense uprising in the genetic analysis of MM. Among translocations, t (4;14) and del17p are associated with poor clinical outcomes and prognosis. If the diagnosis of MM is delayed, then an increase in morbidity and mortality can occur.

KEY WORDS: Multiple myeloma, FISH, Translocations.

PMID:36945157 | DOI:10.29271/jcpsp.2023.03.281