Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Jan 26;25(3):1570. doi: 10.3390/ijms25031570.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells. Normal (NL) cells are considered to pass through a precancerous state, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), before transitioning to MM. In the present study, we acquired Raman spectra at three stages-834 NL, 711 MGUS, and 970 MM spectra-and applied the dynamical network biomarker (DNB) theory to these spectra. The DNB analysis identified MGUS as the unstable pre-disease state of MM and extracted Raman shifts at 1149 and 1527-1530 cm-1 as DNB variables. The distribution of DNB scores for each patient showed a significant difference between the mean values for MGUS and MM patients. Furthermore, an energy landscape (EL) analysis showed that the NL and MM stages were likely to become stable states. Raman spectroscopy, the DNB theory, and, complementarily, the EL analysis will be applicable to the identification of the pre-disease state in clinical samples.

PMID:38338848 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25031570