Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Sep 14;24(18):14097. doi: 10.3390/ijms241814097.
Lenalidomide, a well-established drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma, significantly enhances patients’ survival. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that its main side effect is an increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the underlying mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the mechanism and offer insights into the selection of clinical thrombotic prophylaxis drugs. Firstly, we conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 169 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients who received lenalidomide. To confirm the impact of lenalidomide on thrombosis formation, FeCl3-induced thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis models in mice were established. To investigate the effects of lenalidomide on platelet function, both in vivo and in vitro experiments were designed. During the follow-up period, 8 patients developed thrombotic events, including 8 venous and 1 arterial. Further investigation using mice models demonstrated that lenalidomide significantly promoted the formation of venous thrombosis, consistent with clinical findings. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, assays were conducted to assess platelet function and coagulation. We observed that lenalidomide did not have any noticeable impact on platelet function, both in vitro and in vivo, while administration of lenalidomide resulted in significant decreases in prothrombin time, thrombin time, and prothrombin time ratio in patients, as well as a remarkable reduction in tail-bleeding time in mice. The administration of lenalidomide had no significant impact on platelet function, which may affect venous thrombus formation by affecting coagulation. Therefore, anticoagulant drugs may be superior to antiplatelet drugs in the selection of clinical thrombus prophylaxis.