Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 13;22(14):7470. doi: 10.3390/ijms22147470.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is considered to be the second most common blood malignancy and it is characterized by abnormal proliferation and an accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Although the currently utilized markers in the diagnosis and assessment of MM are showing promising results, the incidence and mortality rate of the disease are still high. Therefore, exploring and developing better diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers have drawn global interest. In the present review, we highlight some of the recently reported and investigated novel biomarkers that have great potentials as diagnostic and/or prognostic tools in MM. These biomarkers include angiogenic markers, miRNAs as well as proteomic and immunological biomarkers. Moreover, we present some of the advanced methodologies that could be utilized in the early and competent diagnosis of MM. The present review also focuses on understanding the molecular concepts and pathways involved in these biomarkers in order to validate and efficiently utilize them. The present review may also help in identifying areas of improvement for better diagnosis and superior outcomes of MM.