Select Page

Hematol Oncol. 2024 Jul;42(4):e3293. doi: 10.1002/hon.3293.

ABSTRACT

Current treatment guidelines of myeloma cast nephropathy (MCN) recommend the institution of plasma cell-directed therapy and consideration of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), with the goal of rapid reduction of the serum free light chain (sFLC). However, the role of TPE continues to remain a subject of debate. The goal of this retrospective bi-institutional study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of TPE in combination with systemic therapy. Eighty patients were included in this analysis, of whom 72.5% had ≥50% drop in their initial involved sFLC. At 3 months from TPE initiation, the overall hematologic response rate (ORR) was 67.5% with a very good partial response or better (≥VGPR) rate of 40%. At 6 months, ORR was 57.5%, with ≥VGPR rate of 49%. The renal response rate at 3 and 6 months was 47.5% and 43.75%, respectively; the overall renal response rate was 48.75%. On multivariable analysis, every one unit increase in baseline creatinine (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, p = 0.006), and achievement of ≥VGPR (OR 21.7 p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with renal response. Also, a ≥50% drop in sFLC was favorably associated with renal response (OR 3.39, p = 0.09). With a median follow-up of 36.4 months, the median overall survival (OS) was 11 months. On multivariable analysis, achievement of renal response (hazard ratio [HR] 0.3, p < 0.0001) and newly diagnosed disease (NDMM; HR 0.43, p = 0.0055) were associated with improved OS. Among NDMM patients, those treated with daratumumab-based regimens had a trend for better OS (p = 0.15), compared to other regimens, but the difference was not significant. At the end of follow-up, an estimated 40.4% of patients who were on dialysis were able to become dialysis independent. In conclusion, our study highlights the poor survival of patients with MCN. Achievement of early renal response is crucial for prolonged OS, with daratumumab-based therapies showing promise.

PMID:38872511 | DOI:10.1002/hon.3293