Med J Armed Forces India. 2023 Nov-Dec;79(6):672-678. doi: 10.1016/j.mjafi.2023.08.007. Epub 2023 Sep 12.
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to prognosticate the post-Autologous Stem Cell Transplant (ASCT) responses in multiple myeloma (MM) with the currently available prognostication models. 18F-FDGPET/CT has numerous advantages to prognosticate the post-transplant responses by assessing extramedullary disease (EMD) in addition to the extent of active disease. We aimed at identifying the prognostic value of EMD in predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
METHODS: This is a single centre prospective study from western India during a study period of 2014-2022 (with a median follow-up of patients of 6 years). All ASCT patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT as part of pre-transplant workup. The conditioning and treatment protocols were not modified based on PET/CT findings. EMD on PET/CT was correlated with pre-transplant biochemical markers and post-ASCT survival/ progression (as defined by revised IMWG criteria). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS ver. 20.
RESULTS: Patients with pre-ASCT EMD had a hazard-ratio for post-transplant all-cause mortality of 5.46 (p-0.045). Pre-transplant β2M and LDH were significantly higher in patients with EMD (p-0.036). The 6-year median OS in patients with and without EMD were 57.1%, and 80.6% respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed poorer OS in patients with EMD χ2 (1-0.496, p-0.481). There was no significant difference in clinical or biochemical EFS among patients with EMD.
CONCLUSION: EMD detected on 18F-FDG-PET/CT has a higher hazard for mortality and is significantly correlated with pre-transplant higher β2M and LDH levels. Thus, EMD by pre-transplant 18F-FDG-PET/CT has a significant prognostic role.