Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2022 Nov 22. doi: 10.1007/s11899-022-00682-4. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of plasma cells that remains incurable with currently available therapies including proteosome inhibitors, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, corticosteroids, and alkylators, in addition to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients who are eligible. Novel therapeutics are therefore required to improve patient outcomes. The goal of this paper is to review the role of three new agents in the MM treatment landscape: belantamab mafodotin, selinexor, and melflufen.
RECENT FINDINGS: All three agents have demonstrated clinical activity in patients with MM. Belamaf is the first FDA-approved anti-BCMA targeted agent, showing single-agent response rates of 60% and higher response rates of 48-100% in combinations. The majority of patients treated with belamaf experience corneal toxicity which remains the main challenge with its use; however, fortunately, the vast majority of patients recover. Selinexor is also FDA approved for the treatment of relapsed MM, with single-agent response rates of 26% and combination rates of 48-65%. Gastrointestinal side effects are common with selinexor use, with roughly 65% of patients experiencing nausea, 50% anorexia, 35% vomiting, and 42% diarrhea, the majority of which are grades 1-2. Both agents have a plethora of ongoing clinical trials with data forthcoming on various combinations with standard backbone agents as well as additional novel treatments. While melflufen showed promising initial data showing single-agent response rates of about 30%, inferior survival outcomes in patients previously treated with ASCT in the phase 3 OCEAN study lead to early termination of the trial and subsequent removal from the US market. Belamaf, selinexor, and melflufen are active agents to treat myeloma. Belamaf and selinexor are current options for the treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma with improved response rates and durability when used in triplet combinations. The optimal timing of use and treatment combinations of both agents in the context of additional immunotherapeutics entering the MM landscape requires further study. Many prospective studies are in development and promise to afford further clarity in the near future.