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Transplant Cell Ther. 2024 Jun 11:S2666-6367(24)00469-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jtct.2024.06.012. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BCMA-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapies, including idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel) and ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel), have transformed the treatment landscape for relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), offering remarkable efficacy with hallmark toxicity risks of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). The FDA mandates a 4-week monitoring period at the treatment center as part of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) to monitor and manage these toxicities, which, while prudent, may add unnecessary challenges related to access and socioeconomic disparities.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess CRS and ICANS onset and duration, as well as causes of non-relapse mortality (NRM) in real-world BCMA CAR T recipients in order to better inform future changes to the monitoring guidelines for CAR T recipients.

STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study across four academic centers that examined 129 ide-cel and cilta-cel recipients that received CAR T cell infusions from May 2021 to June 2023. Infusion and toxicities were managed per institutional guidelines in accordance with previously published guidelines.

RESULTS: While differences were noted in the incidence and duration of CRS/ ICANS between ide-cel and cilta-cel, late-onset CRS and ICANS were rare after 2 weeks following infusion (0% and 1.6%, respectively). NRM was driven by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and infections in the early follow-up period (1.1% until Day 29), then by infections through three months post-infusion (1.2%). Our findings suggest that 25% of patients had to relocate for 4 weeks due to distance from the treatment center.

CONCLUSIONS: With the low risk of CRS and ICANS after 2 weeks, a flexible shorter monitoring period may be reasonable, emphasizing collaboration with referring oncologists to improve NRM.

PMID:38871056 | DOI:10.1016/j.jtct.2024.06.012