Leuk Res. 2023 May 23;131:107324. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2023.107324. Online ahead of print.
Anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are commonly used for treating newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (r/r) multiple myeloma (MM). However, concerns have been raised about the occurrence of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in patients receiving anti-CD38 mAbs. Assessing the safety data for rare adverse events like SPMs is challenging because individual clinical trials are typically focused on the primary endpoint. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 2005 and April 2022, including patients with newly diagnosed or r/r MM. Our aim was to compare SPM rate with the use of anti-CD38 mAb-based regimens with other anti-myeloma regimens. After a median follow-up of 35.3 months (range: 8.2-56.2), we found that exposure to anti-CD38 mAbs was associated with an increased risk of developing SPMs compared to the control group (6.8% vs. 5.2%; Peto odds ratio [OR]: 1.53 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.95]; I2= 0%, p-value for heterogeneity= 0.44). This increased risk was primarily driven by non-melanoma cutaneous cancers (92 vs. 47; Peto OR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.25-2.51]; I2 = 0%, p-value for heterogeneity = 0.54). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of solid tumors (including malignant melanoma) (OR: 1.28 [95% CI: 0.85-1.95]) or hematologic SPMs (OR: 1.86; [95% CI: 0.81-4.27]). In conclusion, the use of anti-CD38 mAb-based combination regimens is associated with a higher risk of non-invasive cutaneous SPMs, but not solid tumors or hematologic SPMs. The increased occurrence of non-invasive cutaneous SPMs may be due to enhanced monitoring resulting from longer treatment duration with anti-CD38 mAbs.